Abstract: Due to their significant impact on human and animal health, cancer diseases are an area of considerable concern for both human and veterinary medicine. Research on the cancer pathogenesis in companion animals, such as dogs, allows not only for improving canine cancer treatment, but also for translating the results into human oncology. Disruption of apoptosis in tumor-transformed cells is a well-known mechanism leading to the development of cancer. One of the main factors involved in this process are proteins belonging to the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family, and the imbalance between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic members of this family contributes to the development of cancer. Studies on the function of these proteins, including B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), have also been intensively conducted in companion animals. The Bcl-xL gene was sequenced and found to share over 99% homology with the human protein. Research showed that the Bcl-2 family plays the same role in human and canine cells, and data from studies in dogs are fully translatable to other species, including humans. The role of this protein family in cancer development was also confirmed. The article presents the current state of knowledge on the importance of the Bcl-xL protein in veterinary oncology.